Criminalization of Refugees in the Age of Insecurity and Mass Migration: Zygmunt Bauman on Ethnicity, Asylum and the new ‘Criminal’


  • Reza Barmaki


Immigrants and refugees continue to be a controversial political issue in Western countries.  Negative impacts of globalization on European labor markets, increasing presence of ethnic minorities in the West, and increasing fear of terrorism and crime, have made them easy targets for hate crimes, governmental mistreatment, and demonization by the media.  Western governments are determined to prevent or restrict influx of refugees.  They have been progressively deserting their time-honored liberal principles and have been governing their people through politics of fear of crime and foreigners, and insecurity.  Refugees are subject to growing bigotry, criminalization, and transfer to inhumane camps.  Developing forms of dislocation, prejudice and criminalization of refugees have been key points of Zygmunt Bauman’s for several years now.  This paper discusses Bauman’s evolving views on criminalization of refugees.  It will discuss novel sociopolitical processes that he has recently pointed to as processes that sustain it.   



2023-01-26 — Updated on 2023-01-26